Wärtsilä 32 liquid fuel power plant

Agility and flexibility combined with high efficiency over the whole load range and in any operating profile makes this plant excellent for both flexible baseload and peak load, and also for supporting the grid with a variety of ancillary services.

  • Ultimate combination of efficiency, operational flexibility and wide range of liquid fuels capability
  • Two-stage turbocharging applied to the Wärtsilä 20V32TS engine maintains efficiency and power regardless of challenging ambient conditions, like high altitudes or hot temperatures
  • Can operate on any liquid fuel, including HFO, LFO, liquid biofuel or crude oil
  • Genset is easily transported in one piece to challenging locations

Key Figures

Output & configuration                                           Performance                                                 Loading & Unloading

Plant output         10-400MW                                      Efficiency                %       47                                                                          Sync  Full

Configuration        1-24x20v32                                   Ramp rate    %load/min >100                        Regular start time       min        <1  <6

                                                                                      Efficiency mode      %       3                             Fast start time              min        <1  <3

                                                                          minimum load                                                              Ultra fast start time      min       n/a  n/a

                                                                                      Spinning mode       %       30                            Stop time                min          1

Wärtsilä biofuel-fired plant in Italian region Monopoli

Wärtsilä was contracted to extend a liquid biofuel-fired plant in Monopoli, on the southeast coast of Italy. The contract comprised a third Wärtsilä 18V32 diesel generating set fired by vegetable oil. Previously, Wärtsilä had been selected to supply the first two generating sets (2 x 8 MWe).

After completion of the extension, in summer 2005, the total combined heat and power (CHP) output reached 24 MW. The three units have been at full load in commercial operation since their installation, with an average plant availability of over 95%.

The main purpose of the power plant, located in an existing vegetable oil refinery, is to produce renewable electricity to be sold to the national grid via a 150 kV connection at a fixed price, as well as steam and power to satisfy the factory process demand. The extended baseload power plant is operating around 8000 hours per year. The plant owner is ItalGreen Energy, part of the Casa Olearia Italiana Group (COI), a major Italian food oil producer.

As the energy company of the COI group, ItalGreen Energy focuses on renewables and biomass-fired power systems. It has actively exploited the current opportunities for green certificates provided by the Italian authorities and also encouraged by EU directives. With three generations of know-how in oil refining and treatment processes, ItalGreen Energy now operates worldwide in its core business.

The 24 MW Monopoli plant is the result of successful project co-operation between Wärtsilä and ItalGreen Energy which started in 2002. The Wärtsilä 18V32 solution was selected as the best and most profitable choice due to its high product quality, good engine performance, and brand guarantee.

Wärtsilä has been responsible for the fuel tests, detailed engineering, full generating set package delivery, start-up and erection supervision, while ItalGreen Energy handled the civil works, erection and site activities for the plant.

“The high level of knowledge and experience of the people involved, on both the ItalGreen Energy and Wärtsilä sides, together with a good working relationship, have been key factors in helping us reach our targets,” comments Mr Leonardo Marseglia, President of COI. “We are happy to see that the tough work, especially at the fuel testing stage, has been well rewarded. All of us can be proud of this project and its results.”


Customer   ItalGreen Energy (Casa Olearia Italiana Group)
   Type   Combined Heat and Power 
   Operating mode   Flexible baseload
   Gensets   3 x Wärtsilä 18V32
   Total output   24 MW
   Fuel   Biofuel
   Scope   EEQ (Engineered Equipment Delivery)
   Delivered   2003 & 2005



What does the acronym ICE mean?

MEKAn internal combustion engine or the internal combustion engine is called the driving heat engine in which the fuel combustion is within the body of the machine itself, hence the name, as opposed to the engine (where combustion takes place in addition to the boiler) .

These machines have widely established n referred to majuscule acronym ICE

As ICE are generally considered the gas engine, the petrol engines, the diesel engines and gas turbines. Generally the ICE, "average worker" or "working substance" are air, (while the locomotives are steam).

The history of the invention and construction of ICE is intertwined with the history and evolution of motor vehicles, which was the main cause of theircreation. Some of them have not received the names of their creators, eg of Law. Otto, K.. Benz, Ch. Ford, P. Diesel etc.

According to a general definition, the internal combustion engine is a heat engine which burns a fuel in the presence of air into a chamber (combustionchamber) by the exothermic reaction of the fuel with the oxidizer (thermal combustion free flame gaseous) is oxygen in the air, generating hot gases. In theinternal combustion engine Venting gas produced exerts a force on the moving part of the engine as the pistons or blades.

The internal combustion engine (or ICE) varies with the external combustion engine, such as steam or engine Stirling, in which energy is transferred from a liquid which is heated in a boiler (located outside the engine) from fossil fuels or wood burning , nuclear energy, solar etc.

A large number of different designs for ICE have been developed and manufactured, with a variety of different strengths and weaknesses. Although there were and stationary applications are still many, great use of internal combustion engines are applications and dominate in vehicles, aircraft and vessels, from the smallest to the largest.

Basic distinction of thermal engines is on the way of conversion of thermal energy into mechanical work, where from it and divided into piston or reciprocating and rotary or turbines. Specifically, the piston reciprocating ICE depending on how it is ignited in the cylinder, i.e. either by spark or heat of the fuel (self-ignition) respectively divided into Otto engines, and diesel engines.

A special category is not the Wankel engine (Wankel). Sub-division of Otto engine are the gasoline engines and gas engine.
And the rotary ICE or turbines are commonly called turbines.


Irrespective of the above with a plurality of other parameters MFN divided into many sub-types, e.g.

  1. Depending of the piston assembly in a) vertical, (in series) b) horizontal, (in series) c) Formula boxer, d) formula V, e) type W, f) opposing pistons, z) asteroids odd, h)double asteroids and i) square layout.
  2. Where the number of pistons or cylinders in which reciprocating in: twin cylinder, four-cylinder, etc.
  3. Depending of the heat cycle, (this is the main distinction mentioned above), to: Otto engines, diesel engines and combined cycle engines. Previously, until 1960, the first two, respectively called explosion combustion engines and machines, but do not fully correspond to the reality nevertheless continues n likewise mentioned in textbooks.
  4. Depending operating times, to: stroke, four-stroke, continuous operation (gas turbines).
  5. Depending on the direction of rotation, to: a) clockwise, b) clockwise c) reversible and d) non-reversible
  6. Depending filler how gaseous fuel: a) natural inhalation and b) Charge.
  7. Depending of the power to: a) single or double acting and b) in small, medium and high power.
  8. Depending speed turns, to: a) vradystrofes, b) average speed, c) tachystrofes or multiturn d) ypertachystrofes.
  9. Depending of the type of fuel: a) fuel engines, b) diesel fuel or diesel engines c) gasoline or petrol engines, d) of natural gas and e) gross fuel engines.
  10. Depending ways of improving combustion in a) with or without turbulence and b) large or small excess air.
  11. Depending cooling mode at: a) air-cooled and b) water-cooled.
  12. According to the fuel injection mode, to: a) by blowing air, b) mechanical injection and c) evaporation.
  13. Depending upon their location, to: a) permanent and b) securities.
  14. Depending upon the nature of use: a) primary and b) auxiliaries.
  15. Depending usage area, to: a) land b) sea and c) air.

What are the technical specifications of vegetable oils that can be used as fuel.

oilBelow is an example of specifications and properties (in RK-Qualitätsstandard) a type of vegetable oil that can be used as fuel. These elements are not necessary and unique properties for prodiorismo type of vegetable oil that can be used as fuel but only an example.


Quality Standard for Rapeseed Oil

Quality Standard for Rapeseed Oil as a Fuel (RK-Qualitätsstandard)

Properties /Contents


Limiting Value

Testing Method



Characteristic properties for Rapeseed 0il

Density (15ºC)




DIN EN ISO 12185

Flash Point
by P.-M.




DIN EN 22719

Calorific Value




DIN 51900-3

Kinematic Viscosity (40ºC)





Low Temperature Behaviour




Rotational Viscometer (testing conditions will be developed)

Cetane Number




Testing method will be reviewed

Carbon Residue




DIN EN ISO 10370

Iodine Number

g/100 g



DIN 53241-1

Sulphur Content




ASTM D5453-93

Variable properties





DIN EN 12662

Acid Value

mg KOH/g




Oxidation Stability (110ºC)




IS0 6886

Phosphorus Content




ASTM D3231-99

Ash Content





Water Content




pr EN ISO 12937




The kinds of vegetable oil do not differ too much in terms of density. On average density is about 10% higher.


The kinds of vegetable oil do not differ too much in terms of density. On average density is about 10% higher.

Flash Point by P.-M.

Is much higher than with diesel fuel. Makes transportation and handling much more safe.

Calorific Value

Is nearly equal for all vegetable oils, but 10% less in comparison to diesel fuel. Because of higher density the volumetric content of heat value is about the same.

Kinematic Viscosity

For most vegetable oils higher than diesel fuel. Big differences between the different kinds of seeds. If too high, the oil can’t pass the fuel circuit. Heating is one of the measures to enable engines to run on vegetable oil.

Low temperature behaviour

No specification defined up to now. But the low temperature behaviour is of importance for engine cold start and low load. Viscosity is such an indicator for low temperature behaviour.

Cetane Number

No sufficient testing method existing, because the engines for the standardising tests are all conventional diesel engines. When measured with conventional method, Cetane number is worse, nevertheless practice shows, that ignition delay is shortened in comparison to diesel fuel.

Carbon Residue

There is a remarkable correlation to the residues in the combustion chamber, piston rings and valves, so carbon residue should be kept low.

Iodine Number

Is an indicator for double bindings in the molecular structure. It influences the long time stability of properties (important for storage).

Sulphur Content

Sulphur reduces the function of catalysts and causes SOx emissions like Diesel engines. Normally vegetable oil does not contain sulphur.


That is the most important property. It blocks filters and nozzles and is abrasive all over the fuel circuit. Must be well controlled.

Acid Value

Shows the content of free fatty acids. Can effect the properties of lubrication oil if bigger quantities reach the oil sump.

Oxidation Stability

Describes the pre-ageing of the oil. With progressing age the viscosity is also increasing continuously. Can also influence the lubrication-oil.

Phosphorus Content

Is depending much on production method for the oil. Phosphorus is dangerous for the engine due to its abrasive function. When the oil is cold pressed or refined normally the content of phosphorus is within the limits.

Ash Content

Concerns the content of oxide- and raw-ash. Ash is abrasive.

Water Content

If emulgated, a higher water content is not disadvantageous (as long the emulgation remains stable, which is very difficult). Normally water will cause problems anywhere in the fuel system.

Practical experience

Shows that the characteristic properties can anyway not be influenced -- but the variable ones can. So a rough oil quality check should mainly be focussed on:

  • Contamination
  • Phosphorus Content
  • Water Content

What is biomass?

biomass The term biomass called any material produced by living organisms (such as wood and other forest products, crop residues, animal wastes, food industry waste etc.) and can be used as fuel for energy production.A form is biomass and pellets (agglomerates) resulting from mechanical compression of sawdust without adding chemicals or adhesives. 

Energy is committed to natural substances derived from the sun. By the process of photosynthesis, plants transform solar energy into biomass. The animal organisms that energy to engage with their food and store a part of it.

This energy eventually attaches biomass, after processing and use. It is a renewable energy source because it is actually stored solar energy that was blocked by plants during photosynthesis.Biomass is the oldest and most widely used renewable energy source. Primitive man, to warm up and cook, use energy (heat) that came from the burning of wood, which is a kind of biomass

But so far, mainly rural populations, both in Africa, India and Latin America, and Europe, to warm, to cook and to elucidate using wood, plant residues (straw, sawdust, useless fruit or seeds Mr. .a.) and animal waste (manure, animal fat, useless etc. catches).

All the above materials, directly or indirectly derived from the plant world, but also waste and most of urban waste (food scraps, paper, etc.) of cities and industries, we can transform them into energy .


According to the Government Gazette 1450/2013 "biomass" means any of the following:

A) products consisting of any vegetable matter originating from agriculture or forestry which can be used as fuel for the purpose of recovering its energy content,B) the following waste: 

  • vegetable waste from agriculture and forestry,
  • natural waste from the food processing industry, if the heat generated is recovered,
  • fibrous vegetable waste from virgin pulp production and from production of paper from pulp, if the waste is applied co-incineration process at the production site and the heat generated is recovered,
  • cork waste,
  • wood waste with the exception of wood waste which may contain halogenated organic compounds or heavy metals as a result of treatment with wood preservatives or coating, and which includes in particular such wood waste originating from construction and demolition.

Advantages of using biomass

1. Combustion of biomass has a zero balance of carbon dioxide (CO2) does not contribute to the greenhouse effect - because the amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2)released by the combustion of biomass are bound again by plants to generate

2. The minimal presence of sulfur in biomass contributes significantly to reducing the emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), which is responsible for acid rain.3. If the biomass is domestic source of energy, the exploitation of energy contributes significantly to reducing dependence on imported fuels and improving the trade balance, securing the supply and to save foreign exchange.

4. The energy use of biomass in an area increases employment in rural areas through the use of alternative crops (various kinds of rape, sorghum, reed, kenaf) the creation of alternative markets for traditional crops (sunflower, etc.), and holding the population to their homes, thus contributing to socio-economic development of the region. Studies have shown that the production of liquid biofuels has positive effects on employment both in agriculture and in industrial area.5. It is a renewable energy source

What is biogas?

Biogas typically refers to a mixture of different gases produced by the decomposition of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas can be produced from raw materials such as agricultural waste, manure, municipal waste, vegetable matter, sewage, green waste or food waste. It is a renewable energy source, and in many cases, uses a very small carbon footprint.

The biogas can be produced from the anaerobic digestion by anaerobic bacteria which digest materials within a closed system, or fermentation of biodegradable materials.

Biogas is mainly methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) and may have small amounts of hydrogen sulphide (H2S), moisture and siloxanes. The methane gas,hydrogen and carbon monoxide (CO) can be combusted or oxidized with oxygen.

This energy release allows biogas to be used as fuel • can be utilized for purposes of heating, such as cooking. It can also be used in a gas engine to convert the energy in the gas to electricity and heat.

Biogas can be compressed in the same manner compressed gas into compressed gas and used to supply power to vehicle engines. In the UK, for example, biogas is estimated to have the potential to replace about 17% of vehicle fuel.

Certified as renewable energy substitute in some areas of the world. Biogas can be cleaned and upgraded to natural gas standards when it becomes biomethane.

The composition of biogas varies depending on the origin of the raw material anaerobic digestion. The landfill gas is methane concentrations usually around 50%.

Advanced waste treatment technologies can produce biogas with 55% -75% methane, that for reactors of free liquid can be increased to 80% -90% methane, using site gas purification techniques.

As produced, biogas contains water vapor. The fractional volume of water vapor is a function of the temperature of biogas • the correction of the measured volume of gas for the content of water vapor and the thermal expansion is made easy by simple mathematics, giving the standard volume of dry biogas.

Biogas can be used to generate electricity in sewage works, in a gas engine cogeneration (CHP), wherein the waste heat from the engine used comfortably for: heating the digester, cooking, space heating, water heating and heating processes.

If compressed biogas can replace compressed natural gas for use in vehicles, which can power internal combustion engines or fuel cells, replacing much more effective carbon dioxide from normal use on-site CHP plants

What is biofuel?

biofuel Biofuels called those combustible solids, liquids or gases derived from biomass, ie biodegradable fraction of products or waste of various human activities

Biofuels derived from organic products and renewable fuels are considered.

As renewable fuels have the characteristic of lower CO2 emissions in total life cycle compared to conventional fossil fuel element is directly dependent on their origin, their use and their production and distribution.

By burning these fuels emit approximately equal amounts of CO2 to the respective oil-derived. Since organic origin is coal which contain committed during the development of the organic matter from the atmosphere in which returns after burning so the balance of emissions throughout the life cycle of biofuel is theoretically zero.

In practice, because in the production and distribution of feedstock and biofuels themselves involved and other activities in which CO2 emissions produced the final benefit of these fuels can be very large to zero. To give one course on the environmental benefits of some biofuel must perform specific life cycle analysis.

In an effort to promote the use of biofuels in the transport sector in Europe, the European Union adopted the EU directive 2003/30 / EC.

According to the EU directive 2003/30 / EC biofuels considered any liquid or gaseous fuel for transport produced from biomass, where biomass is the biodegradablefraction of products, waste and residues from agriculture (including vegetal and animal substances), forestry and related industries activities as well as the biodegradablefraction of industrial and municipal waste.

biofuelAccording to the same directive in the category of biofuels within bioethanol, biodiesel (methyl ester of fatty acids), biogas, biomethanol, biodimethylether, bio-ETBE(ethyl, the Bio-MTBE (methyl), synthetic biofuels (synthetic hydrocarbons or mixtures of synthetic hydrocarbons produced from biomass), biohydrogen and pure vegetableoils.

The legislation also provides that Member States must ensure that a minimum proportion of biofuels and other renewable fuels is placed on their markets, a proportion for 2005 set at 2%, calculated on the basis of energy content, of all petrol and diesel diesel placed on their markets for transport purposes.

This ratio must be increased to 5.75% by the end of 2010. Greece in the summer of 2005 incorporated the directive into national law. Greece has failed to meet its target of 2% at the end of 2005 and also failed to meet the target for 2010.

What are vegetable oils as fuel?

SVO - straight vegetable oil used as diesel fuel (usually new oil, fresh, uncooked).
PPO - pure plant oils, same as SVO: PPO is the term most often used in Europe.
WVO - waste vegetable oil (used cooking oil, "grease", fryer oil, probably including animal fats or fish oils from the cooking).
UCO - used cooking oil (what we called it in the first place until everyone started calling it WVO - even if it wasn't necessarily all vegetable).

The oil produced from oil plants through pressing, extraction or comparable procedures, crude or refined but chemically unmodified, when compatible with the type of engines involved and the corresponding greenhouse gas emissions requirements.

Vegetable oil can be used as an alternative fuel in diesel engines and in heating oil burners. When vegetable oil is used directly as a fuel, in either modified or unmodified equipment, it is referred to as straight vegetable oil (SVO) or pure plant oil (PPO).

Conventional diesel engines can be modified to help ensure that the viscosity of the vegetable oil is low enough to allow proper atomization of the fuel.

This prevents incomplete combustion, which would damage the engine by causing a build-up of carbon. Straight vegetable oil can also be blended with conventional diesel or processed into biodiesel or bioliquids for use under a wider range of conditions.

Virgin vegetable oil, also termed pure plant oil or straight vegetable oil, is extracted from plants solely for use as fuel. In contrast to used vegetable oil, is not a byproduct of other industries, and thus its prospects for use as fuel are not limited by the capacities of other industries.[citation needed] Production of vegetable oils for use as fuels is theoretically limited only by the agricultural capacity of a given economy.

Rudolf Diesel was the father of the engine which bears his name. His first attempts were to design an engine to run on coal dust, but later designed his engine to run on vegetable oil. The idea, he hoped, would make his engines more attractive to farmers having a source of fuel readily available. In a 1912 presentation to the British Institute of Mechanical Engineers, he cited a number of efforts in this area and remarked, "The fact that fat oils from vegetable sources can be used may seem insignificant today, but such oils will become in course of time of the same importance as some natural mineral oils and the tar products are now."

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